Front of Raymond HallEntrance and clock tower




DAVE LEIP'S ATLAS OF  U. S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS - Provides results of U.S. presidential elections to the world community. Data is collected from many official sources and presented here in one convenient location. Includes detailed information on national results for the major and minor candidates for U.S. President in the elections from 1789, individual year pages which include candidates, parties, popular and electoral vote totals, maps, charts, and voter turnout (1932+), state results pages for the elections from 1896 through 2000 with county level maps and data for the elections from 1960+.  Most of the information from the Atlas is free, but during peak times, some data with a greater level of detail is available only to members. Members are charged a small fee for this privilege instead of viewing advertisements. 
ELECTION ORG - Non-partisan, non-advocacy, providing news and analysis on all election reform issues. Includes daily news updates, research publications in PDF, a clickable map for reports by geographic area (such as each states’ voter registration deadlines, voting age population by race, and absentee voting information), valuable links in the resource Library, and places to sign up for a weekly newsletter or e-mail alerts.
ELECTION STATISTICS FROM THE OFFICE OF THE CLERK FOR CONGRESSIONAL OFFICES - Provides official vote counts for federal elections from the official sources among the various states and territories, 1920-2000. All are in PDF, but 1992-2002 are also available as HTML.
FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES: Campaign Finance Reports and Data - Provides recent financial reports from campaigns, parties, and political action committees including House, Senate, and presidential campaigns. Search by parties, PACs, candidates, or individuals. Under
Electioneering Communications spending on broadcast, cable, or satellite for clearly identified federal candidates is reported.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA LIBRARY: Geospacial and Statistical Data Center: US Presidential Election Maps: 1860-1996 - Provides year-by-year maps for both the percentage of the popular vote and the electoral vote distribution and totals. U.S. maps have individual states color coded according to winning candidate with corresponding numbers clearly labeled. An excellent visual presentation of the data.
VOTING AND REGISTRATION STATISTICS FROM THE U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS - Covers voting and registration by various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; historical trends; and projections of the voting-age population by age, race, Hispanic origin, and gender. Compare statistics throughout time with historical time series tables or follow links to more .gov election sites.



ELECTORAL COLLEGE: Center for Voting and Democracy - Includes How the Electoral College works today emphasizing how the system is set up to handle events when it doesn’t work smoothly, the history of controversial presidential elections and Faithless Electors, Concerns with the Electoral College, Controversial Elections, Reform Options, Frequently asked questions, and topics related to the Electoral College.  The site also includes two provocative articles calling for reform from Alan Morrison and John B. Anderson.
FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: ABOUT ELECTIONS AND VOTING  - Includes How the Electoral College Works Distribution of Electoral College Votes among the States, and A Brief History of the Electoral College (a 20-page PDF document). Also includes many informative and educational links to topics that include election results, 2000 presidential primary election results by state, voter registration and turnout statistics, historical demographic statistics, questions and answers about state voting procedures, absentee voting (including state-by-state cutoff dates, notarization and witnessing, when absentee ballots are counted and by whom), and registering to vote.
HARPER'S WEEKLY: HAYES vs. TILDEN: THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE CONTROVERSY of 1876–1877 - A free feature provided by Harper’s Weekly enabling individuals to become familiar with the historic events surrounding the 1876 election. Follow events day by day, acquire a more in-depth understanding by reading the overview, or gain insight into the press’s coverage by looking at the numerous period cartoons (most by Thomas Nast), along with corresponding explanations of their historical meaning.
HOW THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE WORKS (developed by Howstuffworks) - Clear and objective introduction to how the electoral college works. Topics include  Founding Fathers' Idea, How Electors are Selected, When the Electoral College Counted, Present View, and links to more information.

NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION (NARA): Federal Register: U. S. Electoral College - Includes a variety of information and statistics on presidential elections, past and present, and includes an excellent FAQ section and a Procedural Guide to the Electoral College.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS AND THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE - A special presentation from the Library of Congress’ American Memory Historical Collections for the National Digital Library which includes the digitized “Proceedings of the Electoral Commission of 1877,” found in the Congressional Record - Volume 5, Part 4. (Pages have been scanned and may be hard to read.) Links to useful searches for related key terms are provided, along with links to “Today in History” pages from the memory project pertaining to presidential elections and the electoral college.

GENERAL: CENTER FOR DEMOCRACY AND TECHNOLOGY - promotes the democratic potential of today's open, decentralized global internet.  Discusses core issues such as internet privacy, freedom of expression, government transparency, copyright, and democratic participation.
Center for Public Integrity
- Provides research and reporting on public policy issues related to the United States. "Investigative Journalism in the Public Interest."
INSTITUTE FOR COUNTER-TERRORISM - Leading academic institution for counter-terrorism in the world.
LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS - Information on nonpartisan political organization as well as public policy issues.
controversial issues in a straightforward, nonpartisan primarily pro-con format.
State and Local Government Internet directory  - Provides one-stop access to thousands of state agencies and city and county governments.
INTERNATIONAL ELECTION MONITORING: DEMOCRACY WATCH (DW) (International) - A relatively new organization, formed in May 2003. With clear goals and a simple layout, they are nonprofit, non-aligned, and purely informational. They put forth a working definition of functional democracy and plan to set up a consistent and accountable worldwide election monitoring system. Most interesting is the “scorecard for democracy,” where users can analyze any country based on a set of criteria established by DW (International) to arrive at a maximum possible score of 100 or minimum score of negative 1,500.
INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR ELECTION SYSTEMS (IFES)   - Founded in 1987, the IFES provides election monitoring along with all the accompanying support needed for elections to take place in emerging democracies. Primarily describes all the IFES services, including expertise in all areas of election administration and management. Learn about IFES’s international initiatives to promote the electoral and political enfranchisement of people with disabilities, activities supporting U.S. election reform, and many other projects. The site also includes an international election guide.
NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (NDI) - Nongovernmental organization that began sending international election observer delegations in 1986. They support democratic reform in transitional countries and provide election-related programming. The NDI site provides a wealth of information about NDI activities and about politics and elections all over the world. They provide a searchable NDI research database, “Access Democracy” containing PDF documents. Information is available by group, such as “women’s participation,” and by geographic location. Other sections include news, global programs, support, and employment.

Major parties

DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE (DNC)  Founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792, the DNC is the national party organization for the Democratic Party of the United States. The site includes opportunities for users to make secure contributions online; become “e-patriots” by creating Web pages and rallying friends to donate to the party; subscribe to e-mail updates and action alerts; tell stories or read those from others about how the Bush presidency has “failed Americans from all walks of life”; read a calendar of special events; contrast Democrat and Republican stances on important political issues; register to vote; read about the party platform, the history of the party, the charters and bylaws, biographical information of the DNC leadership; and frequently asked questions. The site also includes a Spanish-language version, photo gallery, store, and job board.
- The Republican Party was born in the early 1850s by anti-slavery activists, and Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican to win the White House. The GOP site outlines the party’s agenda; provides a centralized news, press, and speech section; offers information about the history of the party and the current leadership; and, in this election year, devotes almost half its content to campaign issues. The site also includes a store, a Spanish-language section, the opportunity to begin voter registration online, a photo album, political cartoons, ways to make donations or get active in the party, and information about the 2004 convention.

Third parties

CONSTITUTION PARTY (formerly the U.S. Taxpayers’ Party) -  The ultra-conservative Constitution Party began in 1992 and, in 1995,  became the fifth political party to be formally recognized by the Federal Election Commission as a national political party. This site offers ways to become informed and get involved. Read the party’s platform, press releases, history of the party, request information, make a contribution, volunteer, send a friend a form e-mail about the party and the site, or register to attend the national convention.
GREENS - Provides links to its program and platform, and users can also sign up for e-mailed updates on issues and activities. The site provides links to publications, articles, and issues, and gives users information about contacting, joining, organizing, and donating. This site may have the lowest production values of the political party sites reviewed here, but it also offers merchandise.
LIBERTARIAN PARTY - Formed in December 1971 and is America’s third-largest and fastest-growing political party. Libertarians seek to reduce the size and intrusiveness of government and cut all taxes. The Web site is especially clean and professionally designed. Information provided on the site includes news and events, positions, and platform. At the “action center” users can request information, join the party, contribute, volunteer, tell a friend, or follow links to take action on several hot issues like ballot access and gun rights.
NATURAL LAW PARTY - founded in 1992 to “bring the light of science into politics.” Along with contact information for individuals who want to get involved at the state level, the site provides an e-mail subscription service for news and updates, place to get information on becoming a candidate, make a contribution, find out more about candidates, and link to Mothers for Natural Law to become informed about the lack of mandatory labeling for genetically engineered foods.
REFORM PARTY - Officially formed in 1997, on the strength of Ross Perot’s showing (9%) in the 1996 election. The party’s history, as stated on the site, is a rocky one, but the party’s call for reform, especially fiscal responsibility, in government is clear. The Reform Party’s site aims at justifying its existence by attacking “politics as usual.” It provides the principles, mission, history, etc. of the party, along with opportunities to get involved by contributing, signing up to meet other reformers in your area, or hanging its printable flyers.

Political party metasites

POLITICS 1 DIRECTORY OF U.S. POLITICAL PARTIES - Site calls itself the “most comprehensive online guide to American politics.” Although the site is less-than-objective (part of the fun of politics), it has useful and interesting, information about and detailed descriptions of more than 35 alternatives to the two major parties in the United States. An entertaining as well as informative take on political parties! The site also provides links to related sites and many interior links to a broad range of political topics, such as ideologies, issues, and the presidency.
POLITICAL RESOURCES ON THE NET - Lists political sites available on the Internet (sorted by country) with links to parties, organizations, governments, and media from all around the world. Includes an up-to-date list of links to American political parties, including some state and city sites listed under broader headings such as “Communist/Marxist” and “Nationalist.” Also provides political information links to oft-neglected (on other election sites) U.S.-associated places, such as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.



FACTCHECK.ORG: Annenberg Political Fact Check - Have a question about the accuracy of something they heard in a political television ad, debate, speech, interview, or news release, this site enables you to check the facts. The site describes itself as “a nonpartisan, nonprofit, ‘consumer advocate’ for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics.” It provides original articles, with summaries and sources, analyzing factual accuracy in political speech. Searchable site provided by the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.
FOLLOW THE MONEY: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON MONEY IN STATE POLITICS - "The nation's most complete resource for information on money in state politics."  Find quick facts about who is making contributions to which candidates.
MAPLIGHT - The site aims to "illuminate the connections between campaign donations and legislative votes."  Site provides the ability to mine three sets of data:  bill texts and legislative voting records, supporting/opposing interests for each bill, and campaign contribution data.
OPEN SECRETS - Track the monetary contributions for political nominees and its impact on elections.
POLITIFACT TRUTH-O-METER - Fact-check every word of a candidates' speeches, TV ads, and interviews to determine the amount of truth in their claims.
PROJECT VOTE SMART -  Formed in 1992, this is a “voter’s self-defense system” providing detailed factual information about candidates and elected officials in five areas: biographical information, issue positions, voting records, campaign finances, and interest group ratings. Covering local to presidential elections, users will find this a comprehensive campaign information site.


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