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Grammar | Spelling | Studying | Style Manuals (ANSI, APA, CBE, Chicago, IEEE, MLA, Turabian) | Writing

  What is citation?

A citation identifies information you have used in writing your paper. You can cite books, articles, videos, speeches and more. A listing of citations can be called a "bibliography" or "works cited" or simply, "references."

Why cite?

You must cite your sources whenever you use someone else's words, images, or ideas to give that person credit for his/her intellectual property. Citing sources is also necessary so the reader can find the information you used in your research. Citing sources will help you avoid plagiarism. 

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism occurs when you use someone else's intellectual property without properly crediting them, and it is a serious offense. Always cite your sources whether you quote or paraphrase.

To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use:

  • another person's idea, opinion, or theory
  • any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings--any pieces of information--that are not common knowledge
  • quotations or paraphrase of another person's actual spoken or written words

To learn more about plagiarism and how to avoid it, check out our Plagiarism web page.



Charles Darling's Guide to Grammar and Writing - Includes sentences, paragraphs, how to construct an essay, etc. You can also "Ask Grammar" and get a response usually within hours. (Results are posted to the web in "Grammar Logs", not to your email.)
Common Errors in English by Paul Brians - "...deviations from the standard use of English as judged by sophisticated users such as professional writers, editors, teachers, and literate executives and personnel officers. The aim of this site is To help you avoid low grades, lost employment opportunities, lost business, and titters of amusement at the way you write or speak."
Grammar Clinic by WORDPLAY - "Common mistakes in English grammar, and the simple rules that will keep you on track."
Strunk's Elements of Style
by William Strunk, Jr.
WORDNET - Information in 40 languages, "Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms that are linked by conceptual-semantic relations."



Clear Ink's SpellWeb  - If you enter two misspellings of a word, it will search the Internet, and show you which one is more popular, even if neither one is correct. SpellWeb can also be used to judge relative popularity based on occurrence on the Web. 
STUDYING:  Better Studying - Strategies to improve your reading, listening, note-taking and other skills. 
 (Preparing bibliographies, references, or resource lists, etc.)
ANSI - American National Standards Institute. (Primary discipline: Science) Guidelines listed below are consistent with the  American National Standard for the Preparation of Scientific Papers for Written or Oral Presentationbut not authorized by ANSI.

ANSI: the science Style - Maintained by Diane Hacker and Bedford/St. Martin Press

APA - American Psychological Association (Primary discipline: Social Sciences) Guidelines listed below are consistent with the Publication Manual for the American Psychological Association, but not authorized by APA.  Copies of the print version are available in the Library.

APA Style: The Social Sciences - Maintained by Diane Hacker and Bedford/St. Martin Press
APA Electronic Style Formats -  The official APA site for citing electronic resources, which provides some information and citation suggestions.
APA GUIDE -  Maintained by the Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab

Chicago Style (also known as Turabian) - (Primary discipline: History) Guidelines listed on these web pages are consistent with the Chicago Style Manual  but not authorized by the publisher. Copies of the print version are available in the Library.

Chicago Manual - Maintained by the University of Mary Washington Libraries.
Chicago Manual - Maintained by the Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab
CHICAGO STYLE - Maintained by Diane Hacker and Bedford/St. Martin Press

CSE - Council of Science Editors (Primary discipline: Sciences)

CsE Style: The Sciences - Guidelines listed below are consistent with the Scientific Style and Format : The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers , published by the Council of Science Editors.

IEEE Standards - (Primary discipline: Engineering)

IEEE Standards Style Manual - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 

MLA Style - (Primary disciplines:  English and Humanities) Guidelines listed below  are consistent with the the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, but are not authored by the publisher. Copies of the print version are available in the Library.

MLA Style: English and other humanities - Maintained by Diane Hacker and Bedford/St. Martin Press
MLA STYLE - Maintained by the Purdue OWL Online Writing Lab

Turabian, see Chicago Style



PURDUE OWL ONLINE WRITING LAB - Free writing help and teaching resources that include information on business communications, cover letters. grammar, proofreading, resumes, writers block, etc.  Maintained by Purdue University.


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